Research priorities in obstetrics and gynaecological nursing ppt

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Educational and critical thinking content that clients can without much of a stretch overview can work for a wide range of blogs. This post gives really quality data. I'm certainly going to investigate it.Inutroduction to Nursing Research. Unit 1 Learning objectives Introduction to Nursing Research. At the end of this chapter the student should be able to : v Define nursing research.

Inutroduction to Nursing Research Dr. What is Nursing Research? The American Journal of Nursing first published Dr. Development and testing of a model of site transitional care- follow up services for very low birth weight infants who were discharged early from the hospital and later expanded to other high risk patients Dr.

To identify and support research opportunities that will acheive scientific distinction and produce significant contribution to health 2. To identify and support future areas of opportunity to advance research on high quality, cost effective care and to contribute to the scientific base for nursing practice 3.

To communicate and disseminate research findings 4. Enhance the development of nurse research through training and career development opportunities Dr. What evidence is there that what i am learning is valid? Create Presentation Download Presentation. Skip this Video. Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds.


Download Presentation. Share Presentations. Email Presentation to Friend. At the end of this chapter the student should be able to : v Define nursing research Uploaded on Feb 26, Download Presentation Inutroduction to Nursing Research. Related More by User.Obstetric intensive care unit admission ICU suggests severe morbidity. However, there eicher kerala olx no available data on the subject in Ghana.

This retrospective review was conducted to determine the indications for obstetric ICU admission, their outcomes and factors influencing these outcomes to aid continuous quality improvement in obstetric care. This was a retrospective review conducted in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Data on participant characteristics including age and whether participant was intubated were collected from patient records for all obstetric ICU admissions from 1 st January to 31 st December Descriptive statistics were presented as frequencies, proportions and charts.

Hazard ratios were generated for relations between obstetric ICU admission outcome and participant characteristics. There were obstetric ICU admissions over the review period making up The commonest indications for obstetric ICU admissions were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy The case fatality rates for hypertension, hemorrhage, and sepsis were Hypertension, haemorrhage and sepsis are the leading indications for obstetric ICU admissions.

Thus, preeclampsia screening and prevention, as well as intensifying antenatal education on the danger signs of pregnancy can minimize obstetric complications. The establishment of an obstetric HDU in CCTH and the strengthening of communication between specialists and the healthcare providers in the lower facilities, are also essential for improved pregnancy outcomes. Further studies are needed to better appreciate the wider issues underlying obstetric ICU admission outcomes.

This was a review of the reasons for admitting severely-ill pregnant women and women who had delivered within the past 42 days to the intensive care unit ICUthe admission outcomes and risk factors associated with ICU mortality in a tertiary hospital in a low-resource country.

High blood pressure and its complications, bleeding and severe infections were observed as the three most significant reasons for ICU admissions in decreasing order of significance. Pre-existing medical conditions and those arising as a result of, or aggravated by pregnancy; obstructed labour and post-operative monitoring were the other reasons for ICU admission p1405 hyundai the study period.

Attention must be paid to high blood pressure during pregnancy. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Pregnancy and the puerperium are risk factors for severe morbidity and mortality in women in their reproductive age [ 12 ].

The physiological and anatomical changes that occur during this period may also make managing maternal medical and other disease conditions very challenging [ 1 ]. Women who experience life-threatening complications, either as a near-miss or mortality, are more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit ICUwhere a multidisciplinary approach to their care can optimize outcomes. The tool developed by World Health Organization WHO for the evaluation of near-misses defines oristano spiagge foto near-miss based on three criteria—disease criteria, intervention criteria, and organ dysfunction-based criteria [ 5 ].

These admissions are considered an objective indicator of severe maternal morbidity. Fewer admissions are observed in high income countries than in the low-resourced where about half of the global maternal deaths occur [ 2 ]. The greater number of admissions is compounded by a general lack of ICU beds in low-resource countries and most of those available are located in the large referral hospitals in the cities [ 7 ]. There is thus a deficit in the care of critically ill patients including obstetric cases.

This situation is not different in Ghana with only beds in 16 functioning ICUs for a population of about 30 million as of [ 8 ]. Women in their puerperium are more at risk of ICU admission than pregnant women [ 19 ]. The incidence of severe disease, and the rates of mechanical ventilation and mortality are also observed to be higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than in developed countries [ 1 ]. Mortality rates following obstetric ICU admission of A mean duration of stay of 3—4 days has been reported in Asia and Europe [ 1215 ] and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy HDPhemorrhage, and sepsis are often the main indications for ICU admission [ 126 ].SlideShare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

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Upcoming SlideShare. You are reading a preview. Create your free account to continue reading. Sign Up. Like this presentation? Why not share! Evidence-Based Medicine for Obstetr Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Next SlideShares. Download Now Download to read offline and view in fullscreen. Download Now Download Download to read offline. Clinical practice guidelines.

Clinical Practice Guidelines. PICO question.Methods: This study adopted a survey research design. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 80 participants working in antenatal clinic, antenatal ward, gynecological ward, labour ward, postnatal ward, and Family planning unit. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage and Pearson Moment Product Correlation Coefficient statistical methods of data analysis.

Results: Findings of the study revealed that 53 High maternal mortality is a serious public health challenge especially in developing countries. Most maternal deaths are avoidable, yet occur during labour, delivery and within 24 hours postpartum. The World Health Organization WHO [1], reports estimated maternal mortality ratio MMR in developing countries at perlive births and 12 perlive births in developed countries. Despite government efforts in the aforementioned, maternal mortality is still a common problem in Nigeria.

Patient Safety in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Most maternal deaths are preventable as they are related to direct obstetrical complications such as hemorrhage, post-partum infection, obstructed labour and hypertensive disorders—all of which are treatable. Apart from medical causes, there are numerous interrelated socio-cultural factors which delay care seeking and contribute to maternal death. Maternal morbidity and mortality could be prevented if women and families recognize obstetric danger signs and promptly seek health care.

Thus the need to mobilize when danger signs are recognized is apparent. Birth preparedness and complication readiness BPCR is one of the components of focused Antenatal care FANC and is a key strategy in safe motherhood programme whose aim is to reduce delays in seeking, reaching and receiving care [5]. BPCR promotes timely utilization of skilled maternal and neonatal care [6] [7] [8]. It is care that addresses the pregnant woman, family, community, health facility, health service provider, and policy makers, to plan births and effectively deal with emergency complication by utilizing the existing health care delivery system to reduce maternal mortality ratio MMR ; a quality indicator of obstetric care.

MMR is defined as maternal deaths perlive births over a given period. It varies from approximately 10 in developed countries to in least developed countries [9]. Many women in developing countries experience life-threatening and other serious health issues related to pregnancy and childbirth. Among the issues is inadequate or lack of birth and emergency preparedness, a key component of globally acceptable safe motherhood programs [11] [12].

It motivates people to plan to have a skilled provider at every birth. Decisions are made and documented on choice of birth, the preferred skilled birth attendant, items required for birth, birth comparisons, getting a compatible blood donor if necessary and arranging in advance for transport. The concept of birth preparedness thus, encourages the planning for normal pregnancies, deliveries, and postnatal periods and to prepare to deal effectively with emergencies if they occur to overcome delays in seeking, reaching and receiving health care leading to most maternal deaths.

At the basic level, the concept of BPCR includes identifying a trained medical facility capable of providing emergency services, arranging for transport for delivery or obstetric emergency, saving money for delivery and identifying a compatible blood donor. All these factors are categorized under the following: institutional, Community, Socio-demographic and Maternal [16] [17] [18] [19]. Odetola [20], asserts that access to information about maternal services with emphasis on the factors relating to BPCR in the community will help women make choices about who to see, where to go, and type of care they require.

Morhason-Bello, Fagbamigbe, Mumilni, Adesina et al. These danger signs can only be discussed with the pregnant women at ANC if the caregivers have knowledge of them. The danger signs can occur in any of the three stages below:.

Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

These danger signs demand immediate attention to save both mother and child. When proper and adequate informed about the nature o are provided at ANC, the first delay can be prevented.Bleeding that is excessive during menses and occurs irregularly between menses menometrorrhagia.

Vaginal bleeding is also associated Some disorders can cause substantial blood loss, occasionally enough to cause hemorrhagic Vaginal bleeding can originate anywhere in the genital tract, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, and uterus. When vaginal bleeding originates in the uterus, it is called abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Due to Ovulatory Dysfunction AUB-O Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction AUB-O is abnormal uterine bleeding that, after examination and ultrasonography, cannot be attributed to the usual causes structural With hormonal causes, ovulation does not occur or occurs infrequently.

During an anovulatory cycle, the corpus luteum does not form, and thus the normal cyclical secretion of progesterone does not occur. Without progesteroneestrogen causes the endometrium to continue to proliferate, eventually outgrowing its blood supply. The endometrium then sloughs and bleeds incompletely, irregularly, and sometimes profusely or for a long time.

Vaginal Bleeding

Causes of vaginal bleeding in adults see table Some Causes of Vaginal Bleeding in Adult Women Some Causes of Vaginal Bleeding in Adult Women Abnormal vaginal bleeding includes Menses that are excessive menorrhagia or hypermenorrhea or too frequent polymenorrhea Bleeding that is unrelated to menses, occurring irregularly between During the reproductive years, common causes of vaginal bleeding in women who are not known to be pregnant include.

Abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Due to Ovulatory Dysfunction AUB-O Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction AUB-O is abnormal uterine bleeding that, after examination and ultrasonography, cannot be attributed to the usual causes structural Once ingested, they inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH by the hypothalamus, thus inhibiting the release of the pituitary Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding during the reproductive years.

Vaginitis, foreign bodies, and trauma are common causes of vaginal bleeding before menarche. Sexual abuse and cancer are less common causes; however, prompt evaluation is required to rule these condition out.

Practice bulletin no. Obstet Gynecol 1 The first priority is determining whether the patient has persistent major bleeding or is at risk of it eg, due to ectopic pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy In ectopic pregnancy, implantation occurs in a site other than the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity—ie, in the fallopian tube, uterine cornua, cervix, ovary, or abdominal or pelvic cavity Unrecognized pregnancy must be suspected and diagnosed in women of reproductive age because some causes of bleeding during pregnancy eg, ectopic pregnancy are life threatening.

History of present illness should include quantity eg, by number of pads used per day or hour and duration of bleeding, as well as the relationship of bleeding to menses and intercourse. Clinicians should ask about the following:. Menstrual history, including date of last normal menstrual period, age at menarche and menopause when appropriatecycle length and regularity, and quantity and duration of typical menstrual bleeding.

Previous episodes of abnormal bleeding, including frequency, duration, quantity, and pattern cyclicity of bleeding. Sexual history, including faxon 9mm bcg history of rape Medical Examination of the Rape Victim Although legal and medical definitions vary, rape is typically defined as oral, anal, or vaginal penetration that involves threats or force against a person who is unwilling ie, nonconsenting Abdominal pain, light-headedness, and syncope: Ectopic pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy In ectopic pregnancy, implantation occurs in a site other than the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity—ie, in the fallopian tube, uterine cornua, cervix, ovary, or abdominal or pelvic cavity Treatment varies depending on the patient's reproductive status.

There are 2 types of functional cysts: Follicular Chronic pain and weight loss: Cancer Introduction to Gynecologic Tumors Gynecologic cancers often involve the uterus, ovaries, cervix, vulva, vagina, fallopian tubes, or the peritoneum. The most common gynecologic cancer in the US is endometrial cancer, followed Easy bruising and excessive bleeding due to toothbrushing, minor lacerations, or venipuncture: A bleeding disorder Excessive Bleeding Unusual or excessive bleeding may be indicated by several different signs and symptoms.

Patients may present with unexplained nosebleeds epistaxisexcessive or prolonged menstrual blood flow Past medical history should identify disorders known to cause vaginal bleeding, including a recent spontaneous or therapeutic abortion and structural disorders eg, uterine fibroids Uterine Fibroids Uterine fibroids are benign uterine tumors of smooth muscle origin.

Fibroids frequently cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain and pressure, urinary and intestinal symptoms, and pregnancy Clinicians should identify risk factors for endometrial cancer Endometrial Cancer Endometrial cancer is usually endometrioid adenocarcinoma.The challenge is not just to develop new interventions, but to identify barriers to the effective implementation of existing tools, and to devise ways to overcome these barriers.

This 'scaling-up' of effective strategies will require an international and a multisectoral approach. It will require the formation of new partnerships between the private and public sectors and between governments and the communities they represent.

Towards the end of the 15th century, a devastating epidemic of infectious syphilis swept Western Europe. Observers at that time quickly perceived the disease to be transmitted sexually, but this group of 'venereal diseases' was subsequently regarded as unproblematic until it was noted to be a severe problem among military personnel in the 19th and 20th centuries 1.

Furthermore, this can be achieved through the use of low technology in sustainable and cost-effective control programmes 3. However, despite decades of control efforts, STIs still thrive today. There are problems in the effective implementation of control programmes because STIs are not just biological and medical problems, but also behavioural, social, political and economic problems — many facets that have not been adequately addressed in the past. This realisation is slowly translating into more comprehensive approaches to STI control involving several disciplines.

Yet, there is growing evidence that the epidemiology of STIs and HIV is changing, and control efforts may be severely challenged once again. Sexually transmitted infections STIs constitute an important public health problem for the following reasons: i STIs are frequent with high prevalence and incidence; ii STIs can result in serious complications and sequelae; iii STIs have social and economic consequences; and iv a number of STIs have been identified as facilitating the spread of HIV.

STIs are caused by over 30 pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoal agents, fungal agents and ecto-parasites. There are, however, substantial geographical variations in estimated prevalence and incidence. The overall yearly incidence rate of curable STIs in Africa is estimated at per people in reproductive ages 15—49 yearsbut is only 77—91 per in industrialised countries 4. The second highest rates are found in South and South-East Asia.

This is not surprising given the large at-risk populations of young people in these countries, and — in the case of China — the recent opening of its borders to free trade, quickly followed by increases in prostitution and STI, which were once believed to have been controlled 5. The reasons for the increase of STIs in many non-industrialised countries are multifactorial but relate to a great extent to the lack of access to effective and affordable STI services in many settings 7or to the collapse of once relatively performant health systems in countries undergoing harsh economic and health reforms 6.

STIs impose an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality, both directly through their impact on reproductive and child health, and indirectly through their role in facilitating the sexual transmission of HIV infection. The greatest impact can be seen among women in whom severe complications include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pain, and adverse pregnancy outcomes ectopic pregnancies, endometritis, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and low birth weight.

In both men and women, STIs play a major role in infertility. A growing number of malignancies are also attributed to STIs, notably cervical, anal and penile cancers as well as hepatocellular carcinoma. Congenital infections in the new-born include congenital syphilis, ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia.

Yet it is only in recent years that STIs have been accorded any priority by national ministries of health or by the international community, mainly because of their potential interaction with HIV.

HIV, by causing immunosuppression, can modify the natural history durationclinical presentation severityand response to treatment of certain STIs, notably other viral infections such as genital herpes simplex virus infection or human papillomavirus. However, one of the major hurdles in understanding this relationship was that HIV and other STIs share a common sexual transmissibility, driven by common sexual behaviours; thus, the observed association could be the result of a 'confounding' effect.

This could only be overcome at the analytical stage through statistical methods for 'controlling' for the effect of behaviour, or in study design, by conducting prospective randomised-controlled intervention trials. A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation.

3Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, East Jeddah Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia To identify regional research priorities for nursing. Doctors • Nurses • Decision makers • Patients • Public; Shaikh Bahamdan's Research Chair for Evidence- Based Health Care & Knowledge Translation.

most researchers agree that the cost of carrying for the increased number of low birth weight infant in neonatal intensive care units contribute.

Jennifer Fenwick, PhD, MNgSt, BHlthSc (Ng), RM. Associate Professor of Midwifery. Curtin University & King Edward Memorial Hospital. School of Nursing and. The audits were conducted by a local audit committee comprising two obstetrician-gynaecologists, one general practitioner and one nurse. The evidence supported. global research priorities for maternal and perinatal health for midwives, nurses) to diagnose, manage and refer women with obstetric. Obstetric and. Gynecological Nursing The obstetric nurse does a three or four month course of V.D.R.L Veneral disease research laboratory.

Nursing research in obstetrics and gynaecology. Int J Nurs Stud. ;19(4) doi: /(82) Obstetrics & Gynecology is that branch of medicine concerned with the study of women's health and reproduction. The specialty encompasses medical.

Director - Reproductive/Maternal Health and Health System. Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

WHO Collaborating Centre in. Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King's College London School of Medicine is currently advised in the context of a research setting only. Research priorities in obstetric and gynaecological nursing. II. Human reproduction. Review of anatomy and physiology of human reproductive. Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the National Institute for Health of nursing roles and a reduction in the number of hospital units and services. The procedure may be performed by a gynaecology nurse specialist or a doctor.

Surgical procedures must be conducted by an appropriately trained gynaecologist. A SEMINAR ON PREVENTIVE OBSTETRICS, RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGICAL NURSING SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY Ms. Subhashni Mrs. Santoshi. A culture of safety should be the framework for any effort to reduce medical errors. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), a.

Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

contribute to pregnancy care including midwives, obstetricians, (Philippa Middleton, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute) and. Ali KubbaConsultant Community Gynaecologist and Honorary Senior Lecturer, Lambeth PCT, Guy's, Kings and St Thomas' Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Selection of Candidates for Nurse Practitioner in Midwifery Training Nursing with specialty in obstetrics and gynaecology with minimum 2 years.